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4th International Conference on Enzymology, Lipid Science & Glycobiology, will be organized around the theme “Novel Advancements in Enzymology, Lipid Science & Glycobiology”
Enzymology Congress 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Enzymology Congress 2018
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Enzymes are both macromolecular and micromolecular proteins and are found naturally. They are macromolecular biological catalysts and accelerate chemical reactions. Enzymology deals with the study of enzymes, their kinetics, structure, and function, as well as their relation to each other. Enzymes play a very important role in the world. They act as a catalyst for a chemical reaction, whether that reaction involves the execution of DNA for the purpose of cell repair or for the digestion of any types of meat as well as poultry. Biochemistry is the branch of science which deals with the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. It is a laboratory based science that combines both biology and chemistry. Biochemistry mainly focuses on processes that happen at a molecular level like inside our cells, studying components like proteins, lipids and organelles. It also looks at how cells communicate with each other. Biochemists should understand how the molecular structure relates to its function, and then allow them to predict that how the molecules will interact. Biochemistry covers a range of scientific disciplines, which includes genetics, microbiology, forensics, plant science and medicine.
- Track 1-1Biochemical processes
- Track 1-2Enzymatic chemistry
- Track 1-3Biochemical signaling
Molecular enzymology is that branch of biochemistry which encircles or deals with the functional as well as the structural characteristics of the enzymes within a molecular level. Enzymes are globular proteins which play a very important role as a catalyst for any type of biochemical reactions. Molecular enzymology is based on designing and enzyme synthesis and high unmet medical needs are based on innovative drug targets. These works are based on innovative drug targets. Molecular Enzymology's interest include in all aspects related to enzymes like discovery of enzymes, structure of enzymes, enzyme mechanisms, cellular and metabolic functions of enzymes, discovery of drugs, biochemical aspects of enzymes, bioinformatics, computational analysis, studies for molecular modeling, newer methods in enzyme expression as well as purification, bio catalysis, bio molecular engineering, enzyme kinetics and enzyme inhibitors.
- Track 2-1Designing of enzymes
- Track 2-2Synthesis of enzymes
- Track 2-3Enzyme mechanisms
- Track 2-4Bio molecular engineering
- Track 2-5Enzyme expression
Clinical enzymology deals with the measurement of enzyme activity for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Enzymes are macromolecular catalysts which increase the rate or velocity of physiologic reactions. Each and every reaction occurring daily in our body takes place with the help of an enzyme or the other. In general, most of the enzymes are present in cells at much higher concentrations than that in plasma. Measurement of these levels in plasma indicates whether their tissue of origin is damaged causing to the release of intracellular components into the blood. This forms the basis of what is called clinical enzymology. Thus we can say that clinical enzymology refers to measurement of enzyme activity for the diagnosis as well as the treatment of diseases.
- Track 3-1Spectrometry, electrophoresis & immunoassay
- Track 3-2Chemical pathology
- Track 3-3Toxicology
Enzymes are the group of proteins which process cellular metabolism. They can affect a reaction either by catalysing or they can be used to reverse the reactions in bio-chemical pathways. Though enzymes have complex enzymatic structures, they undergo many changes which is very important for reactions and so enzyme structure is very much essential. There is always a specific enzyme for specific reaction i.e., reactions are enzyme specific in nature. Enzymes structures are made up of a special type of amino acids i.e., α amino acids which are linked together via an amide (peptide) bond in a linear chain. This is the primary structure and the resulting amino acid chain is called a polypeptide chain or rather a protein.
- Track 4-1Bio-chemical pathways of enzymes
- Track 4-2Metabolic pathway of enzymes
- Track 4-3Activation energy of enzymes
- Track 4-4"Lock and key" model of Enzymes
- Track 4-5Exploitation of enzymes
Enzymes are the vital activators in life processes, likewise in the soil they are known to play a substantial role in maintaining soil health and its environment. Soil enzymes are critically important to the functioning of the soil. Soil enzymes are the product of soil microorganisms and are the drivers for biogeochemical cycling in soils. Soil enzymes are also involved in remediation of contaminated soils. As a result, soil enzymes have been considered indicators for soil ecosystem health. The enzymatic activity in the soil is mainly of microbial origin, being derived from intracellular, cell-associated or free enzymes. A unique balance of chemical, physical, and biological (including microbial especially enzyme activities) components contribute to maintaining soil health. Evaluation of soil health therefore requires indicators of all these components. Healthy soils are essential for the integrity of terrestrial ecosystems to remain intact or to recover from disturbances, such as drought, climate change, pest infestation, pollution, and human exploitation including agriculture. Deterioration of soil, and thereby soil health, is of concern for human, animal, and plant health because air, groundwater, and surface water consumed by humans, can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soil.
- Track 5-1Methodology of Soil Enzyme
- Track 5-2Enzyme Diversity in Soils
- Track 5-3Michaelis–Menten Enzyme Kinetics
- Track 5-4Application of Kinetic Models
Enzyme kinetics deals with the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed mainly by the enzymes. In enzyme kinetics, the rates of the reaction are measured and the effects of varying the conditions of the reaction are studied. Studying the kinetics of an enzyme in this way can reveal the catalytic mechanism of that particular enzyme as well as its role in metabolism, how its activity is being controlled, and how a drug might inhibit that enzyme.
- Track 6-1Immunoassays for protein detection
- Track 6-2Catalytic mechanisms of enzymes
- Track 6-3Chemical reactions of enzymes
- Track 6-4Activation of enzymes
- Track 6-5Inhibition of enzymes
Enzymes are the macromolecular and micromolecular proteins in the drug design that act as drug targets for the diseases in the process of discovery of drugs as well as its development. There are a number of drug targets which are involved in the designing of the drugs. Drug target is a nucleic acid or a protein whose activity can be modified by a drug itself. The drug can be a chemical compound with a small molecular weight or a biological compound, such as an antibody or a recombinant protein. The drug target should be effective in the disease by relevant in vitro or in vivo models and analysis.
- Track 7-1Drug designing using enzymes
- Track 7-2Drug development using enzymes
- Track 7-3Drug modelling
- Track 7-4Drug targeting
Enzyme Toxicology is unremarkable, except the potential irritating effects usually associated with some proteases at high concentrations, and the allergic effects of enzymes. Like anything one is exposed to, the dose makes the poison; thus, with certain enzymes, a sufficient excess in exposure can lead to irritation. Enzymes are like the majority of food proteins so that oral exposure to the gut is entirely without effect, except perhaps at very high, unrealistic, exposure levels
Enzymes have been evaluated for genotoxic effects Nevertheless, enzymes are not mutagenic in the standard screening assays used in genetic toxicology, specifically the Ames test, and are not clastogenic in chromosome aberration tests. Repeated exposure studies on a number of enzymes have been completed. Most often this has been done in relation to enzymes to be used in foodstuffs and so exposure has been carried out via the oral route.
Proteomics is the large-scale study related to proteins, mainly their structures and functions. Proteins are the vital parts of all the living organisms, as they form the main components of the physiological metabolic pathways of the cells. The term proteomics was first coined in the year of 1997 to make an analogy with the term genomics, which again deals with the study of the genome. The word proteome is a combination of protein and genome together. The proteome can be said as the entire set of proteins, which are produced or modified by an organism or a system.
- Track 9-1Post-translational modifications of proteins
- Track 9-2Methods of studying proteins
- Track 9-3Biomarkers
- Track 9-4Hybrid technologies
- Track 9-5Mass spectroscopy & protein profiling
Molecular simulations and modelling means altering the science of enzymology. Computational enzymology is a rapidly developing area, and is studying the theories of catalysis, challenging 'textbook' mechanisms, and also identifying the novel catalytic mechanisms. Also increasingly, modelling is contributing directly towards the experimental studies of the enzyme-catalysed reactions. Potential practical applications in this area include interpretation of the experimental datas, catalyst design and also drug development.
- Track 10-1Molecular simulations of enzymes
- Track 10-2Molecular modelling of enzymes
- Track 10-3Fundamental mechanisms of biological catalysts
The nanomaterials possess ideal characteristics to equilibrate principal factors which determine biocatalysts efficiency, including specific surface area, mass transfer resistance and effective enzyme loading. This review presents the current scenario and techniques in enzyme immobilization. Some methods are used which are efficient to combine proteins/enzymes with nanoparticles. Immobilization process is to optimize the operational performance of an enzyme for industrial applications. So far different matrices have been described in the literature to improve the performance of the immobilized enzymes. With the advent of nanotechnology, the nanomaterials because of their unique physico-chemical properties constitute novel and interesting matrices for enzyme immobilization.
- Track 11-1Nanotechnology products
- Track 11-2Nanopolymers
- Track 11-3Enzyme nanoparticles
- Track 11-4DNA microarray
- Track 11-5DNA nanotechnology
- Track 11-6Immobilization using nanoparticles
- Track 11-7Nanotechnology in targeted drug delivery
- Track 11-8Nanotechnology enabled enzyme activity
Enzymes are used nowadays in chemical industries and for some industrial purposes where extremely specific catalysts are required for industrial uses. Enzymes in general are rare in number of reactions they have evolved to catalyse and also by the lack of stability in organic solvents and at very high temperatures. Thus, protein engineering is an active and advanced area of research which includes attempts for creating new enzymes with novel properties. These efforts have begun to be successful, and a few enzymes have now been designed to catalyse reactions that do not occur naturally. Enzymes are usually macromolecular and micromolecular protein molecules that manipulate the other molecules i.e., the enzymes substrates. These target molecules binds up to the active site of an enzyme and are thus converted into products via a series of steps which are combined known as the enzymatic mechanism.
- Track 12-1Enzyme purification
- Track 12-2Enzyme production
- Track 12-3Enzymatic mechanisms
In the presence of an enzyme, the reaction runs in the same direction as it would run without an enzyme, but just more quickly. The reaction rate is dependent on the activation energy which is needed to form the transition state which then transforms into products. Enzymes increase the reaction rates by decreasing the transition state energy. First, binding forms an enzyme-substrate complex (ES) with low energy. Secondly the transition state is stabilized by the enzyme such that it requires lesser energy to achieve compared to the uncatalyzed reaction (ES‡). Finally the enzyme-product complex (EP) gets dissociated to release the products
- Track 13-1Catalytic mechanisms of enzymes
- Track 13-2Applications of immobilized enzymes in food
- Track 13-3Enzymes in food digestion
- Track 13-4Product recovery
- Track 13-5Production of biomass
- Track 13-6Production of extracellular metabolites
- Track 13-7Production of intracellular components
- Track 13-8Transformation of substrate
- Track 13-9Transition state of enzymes
- Track 13-10Enzyme-substrate complex
- Track 13-11Single cell protein
Food enzymology deals with all the aspects of the enzymology which are related to the food systems. The basic aspects of the food enzymology are the methods for measuring the enzyme activities; extraction of the enzymes from microbial, plant and animal systems; methods of purification of enzyme as well as its characterization; and regulation of enzymatic activities by activators, inhibitors, and via covalent modification
Clinical drugs which communicate with the lipids of membrane and which alter the composition of cell membranes can also change their localization and the activity of the membrane proteins. Several drugs which are used to fight against cancers, cardiovascular diseases, obesity and other pathologies, determine the structure of lipid in plasma membrane and they produce a an alteration in the localization and activity of the signalling proteins. The recent studies have caused to identify the specific disease-provoking gene mutations and have led to improve the clinical and laboratory treatments, and prenatal diagnosis in lipid related diseases.
- Track 15-1Membrane-lipid therapy
- Track 15-2Drug delivery
- Track 15-3Nanoparticles
- Track 15-4Liposomes
- Track 15-5Biochemistry
The total cost of decreasing low-density lipoprotein generally includes the costs of physician services, case finding and monitoring, dietary and exercise modifications, medications, and also treating the side effects. The cost of treatment-related appointments follow-up or varies by type of provider, location, and practice setting. The annual cost of statin drugs to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels can range from $1,082 to $1,543 per year. Although the cost of decreasing the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels can be high, but it is much lower than the direct and indirect costs of cardiovascular disease research.
- Track 16-1Glycerolipids
- Track 16-2Sphingolipids
- Track 16-3Saccharolipids
- Track 16-4Lipoprotein
- Track 16-5Metabolic disorder
Lipid microarrays always give a learning base to the human lipidome. Exogenous types of fat are transported from the digestive system to the liver. After passing in to the circulatory system the chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by the lipoprotein lipase which are endothelial-enslaved. The liver uses the exogenous type of fat and can discharge surplus lipids by means of VLDL into the blood. The VLDL leftovers which are remaining can either be taken up into the liver or are hydrolyzed into LDL. Both these types of Hypercholesterolemia are the most fluent and have significant danger elements for arteriosclerosis.
- Track 17-1Binding of lipids to intrinsic membrane proteins in the bilayer
- Track 17-2Perturbations of the lipid bilayer due to the presence of lateral membrane proteins
- Track 17-3Backbone and solid chain dynamics of membrane proteins
- Track 17-4Binding of peripheral membrane proteins to the lipid bilayer
- Track 17-5Transducers
- Track 17-6Lipid micro arrays
Fossil fuels are the life and blood for our society and for many others around the world. The environmental pollution due to the use of fossil fuels as well as their gradual depletion make it necessary to find an alternative energy and chemical sources that are environment friendly and also at the same time renewable in nature. Waste lipids are ideal the potential substrates for the production of biogas, since theoretically more methane can be produced by this process, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. First step includes the hydrolysis of complex organic polymers into monomers by extracellular enzymes which are produced by the fermentative class of bacteria. Proteins are decayed to amino acids, carbohydrates into soluble sugars and lipids to glycerol. Lipid hydrolysis is actually faster than hydrolysis of protein or carbohydrate, and are thus considered to be a rapid process in anaerobic digestion.
- Track 18-1Algal Biofuel
- Track 18-2Aerobic digestion
- Track 18-3Cellulases
- Track 18-4Lipases
- Track 18-5Proteases
- Track 18-6Anaerobic bioconversion
- Track 18-7Enzymes
- Track 18-8Methane
- Track 18-9Biorefinery
- Track 18-10Syngas
- Track 18-11Biogas
- Track 18-12Biodiesel Biogas Syngas Biorefinery
- Track 18-13Microalgae
Lipids play a huge role in the normal functioning of the body and act as structural building material of all cell membranes and organelles. They provide energy for all the living organisms and provide almost thrice the energy content as compared to carbohydrates and proteins on a weight basis. They function as molecular messengers in the body. Lipids are also called biomarkers of disease and are involved in several pathological conditions. Some of the fatty acids need to be taken in diet include essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (LA), and a-linolenic acid (LNA). DHA again is a daily requirement for normal neural and retinal development for the infants and young children.
- Track 19-1Essential fatty acids
- Track 19-2Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
- Track 19-3Omega 3
- Track 19-4Cholesterol
- Track 19-5Cell membrane
- Track 19-6Biomarkers
Glycan’s are saccharides that can be linked to a variety of biological molecules through an enzymatic process called glycosylation to elevate their function of the four fundamental building blocks of life, proteins, carbohydrates (glycan’s), lipids and nucleic acids. Glycan’s have received the least attention from researchers. Glycan’s are found in Achaea, bacteria and eukaryotes, and their diverse functions contribute to physical and structural integrity, extracellular matrix formation, signal transduction, protein folding and information exchange between cells. The glycan components of these means can be more important to determine the biological activity and therapeutic ability. Biochemistry and Glycobiology possess a multidisciplinary study of carbohydrate-binding proteins, glycolipids and some other plants protein that are capable of interacting with endogenous or foreign molecules.
- Track 20-1Obesity and health
- Track 20-2Structural diversity of lipids
- Track 20-3Host-pathogen interactions
- Track 20-4Microbial glycobiology
- Track 20-5Algorithm and tools
Glycoinformatics is a presently new branch of bioinformatics that deals with the study of carbohydrates. It broadly includes database, software, and algorithm development for the study of carbohydrate structures, glycoconjugates, enzymatic carbohydrate synthesis and degradation, as well as carbohydrate interactions. Primitive usage of the term does not presently include the treatment of carbohydrates from the more well-known nutritive aspect.